My doctoral research is investigating Participatory Design methods for developing educational technologies with three to four year-old children. I’m working under the advisement of Doctor Juan Pablo Hourcade at the University of Iowa.

Our approach is called the 3Cs: create, connect, and communicate. We strive to make technology that is age appropriate and promotes healthy activities for children to use their creativity, to connect with their environment, and communicate with their peers and teachers.


Ubiquitous use of technologies by children under 4;

Impacts of technology on children are unclear;

Common concerns:

• Use only for information access;

• Isolate children from social and physical environment;

Many apps provide children with instant gratification;


Investigate best practices for child-centered design activities for three to four year-olds;

Design technology-rich learning environments;

Provide greater opportunities for children to create, connect and communicate;


Pursue child-centered design with 3-4 year-old children;

Understand basic interaction design guidelines for this age;

Integrate technology with children’s environment;

Involve caregivers with 3Cs activities using technology;

Engage children in activities involving delayed gratification;


Pantoja, L., Diederich, K., Crawford, L. Hourcade, J. P. Explorations of Voice User Interfaces for 3 to 4 Year Old Children. CHI’19 Extended Abstracts, May 4-9, 2019, Glasgow, Scotland, UK.

Pantoja, L., Diederich, K., Crawford, L. Hourcade, J. P. Voice Agents Supporting High-Quality Social Play. (2019, April). In Proceedings of the 18th ACM Conference on Interaction Design and Children. ACM. (under review)

Pantoja, L., Diederich, K., Crawford, L. Hourcade, J. P. Play-based design: exploring a new method to design technologies with 3 and 4-year-old children. ACM Transactions on Computer-Human Interaction (TOCHI). (under review)

Juan Pablo Hourcade, Luiza Superti Pantoja, Kyle Diederich, Liam Crawford, and Glenda Revelle. 2017. The 3Cs for preschool children's technology: create, connect, communicate. interactions 24, 4 (June 2017), 70-73. DOI:

Pantoja, L.S., Hourcade, J.P., Diederich, K., Crawford, L., Utter, V. (2017). Co-designing an Experience with 3 and 4 Year-old Children. Retrieved from

Hourcade, J. P., Mascher, S. L., Wu, D., & Pantoja, L. (2015, April). Look, My Baby Is Using an iPad! An Analysis of YouTube Videos of Infants and Toddlers Using Tablets. In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems (pp. 1915-1924). ACM.

Luiza Pantoja © 2019